M. Brenner, C. Popescu, O. Weichold
Appl. Sci. 2020
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Anti-Frothing Effect of Poultry Feathers in Bio-Based, Polycondensation-Type Thermoset Composites
ABSTRACT: The formation of polycondensation-type thermoset resins from natural reactants such as citric and glutaric acid, as well as 1,3-propanediol and glycerol, was studied. Monitoring the mass loss by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) allowed the rate constants of the esterification to be calculated, which were in the order of 7·10−5 s−1 for glutaric acid and approximately twice as high for citric acid. However, the combination citric acid/glycerol was previously reported to froth up at high conversions, giving rise to foams, which makes the preparation of compact engineering composites challenging. In light of this, we observed that shredded poultry feathers not only increased the conversion and the reaction rate of the combination citric acid/glycerol, but increasing the amount of feathers continuously decreased the number of visible bubbles. The addition of 20 wt% of feathers completely prevented the previously reported frothing and gave rise to compact materials that were macroscopically free of defects. Besides this, the addition of feathers also improved the fire-retardant properties. The tensile properties of the first specimens are still rather low (σ = 11.6 N/mm2, E = 750 N/mm2), but the addition of poultry feathers opens a new path for green thermoset resins.